Monografías de la IARC: 40 años de evaluación de los riesgos carcinogénicos para los seres humanos

Cien científicos de alto prestigio de agencias estatales e institutos de investigación universitarios expertos en salud ambiental y cáncer de casi todo el mundo refirman la calidad y el valor de las evaluaciones de la Agencia Internacional para la Investigación del Cáncer (IARC/OMS) identificando sustancias que inducen cáncer en humanos. Esta es una respuesta a la campaña de cuestionamientos y descrédito que científicos de las empresas de agrotóxicos y otros químicos desarrollan contra la IARC y sus evaluaciones defendiendo intereses comerciales y no la salud de la población. Este informe se publicó en EHP en junio de 2014, defendiendo la evaluación del GLIFOSATO en que se lo reconoce como probable CARCINOGENICO clase 2A. Los cuestionamientos a las monografias de la IARC encierran conflictos de interes.

Se accede al paper en forma total en: https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409149/

Abstracts

Introducción: El Programa para la Evaluación de Riesgos Carcinogénicos para Humanos de la Agencia Internacional para la Investigación del Cáncer (IARC/OMS) ha sido criticado por varias de sus evaluaciones, así como el enfoque utilizado para realizar estas evaluaciones. Algunos críticos han afirmado que los fracasos de los Grupos de Trabajo del IARC en reconocer las debilidades y los sesgos de los miembros del Grupo de Trabajo han llevado a la clasificación de un número excesivo de agentes como si fueran carcinógenos para los seres humanos.
Objetivos: Los autores de este análisis son científicos de diversas disciplinas relevantes para la identificación y evaluación de peligros de carcinógenos humanos. Examinamos las críticas al proceso de clasificación del IARC para determinar la validez de estas preocupaciones. Aquí presentamos los resultados de ese examen, revisamos el historial de las evaluaciones del IARC y describimos cómo se realizan las evaluaciones del IARC.

La IARC identifica exposiciones a sustancias que inducen el cáncer para evitando este contacto disminuir el riesgo de cáncer en la población

La IARC identifica sustancias que inducen  cáncer con el fin de disminuir la exposición a las mismas y disminuir el riesgo de cáncer en la población

Discusión: Llegamos a la conclusión de que estas recientes críticas no son convincentes. Los procedimientos empleados por el IARC para reunir a grupos de trabajo de científicos de las diversas disciplinas y las técnicas seguidas para revisar la literatura y realizar la evaluación de peligros de varios agentes proporcionan una evaluación equilibrada y una indicación apropiada del peso de la evidencia. Algunos desacuerdos de los científicos individuales con algunas evaluaciones no son evidencia de un fracaso del proceso. El proceso de revisión ha sido modificado con el tiempo y sin duda será alterado en el futuro para mejorar el proceso. En teoría, cualquier proceso puede mejorarse y apoyaríamos la revisión y mejora continua de los procesos del IARC. Esto no significa, sin embargo, que los procedimientos actuales son defectuosos.
Conclusiones: Las Monografías del IARC han hecho y continúan haciendo importantes contribuciones a los fundamentos científicos de las acciones sociales para mejorar la salud pública.

Autor principal: Neil Pearce, Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Todos los autores: Neil Pearce,1 Aaron Blair,2 Paolo Vineis,3 Wolfgang Ahrens,4 Aage Andersen,5 Josep M. Anto,6 Bruce K. Armstrong,7 Andrea A. Baccarelli,8 Frederick A. Beland,9 Amy Berrington,2 Pier Alberto Bertazzi,10 Linda S. Birnbaum,11 Ross C. Brownson,12 John R. Bucher,13 Kenneth P. Cantor,14 Elisabeth Cardis,15 John W. Cherrie,16 David C. Christiani,8 Pierluigi Cocco,17 David Coggon,18 Pietro Comba,19 Paul A. Demers,20 John M. Dement,21 Jeroen Douwes,22 Ellen A. Eisen,23 Lawrence S. Engel,24 Richard A. Fenske,25 Lora E. Fleming,26 Tony Fletcher,27 Elizabeth Fontham,28 Francesco Forastiere,29 Rainer Frentzel-Beyme,30 Lin Fritschi,31 Michel Gerin,32 Marcel Goldberg,33 Philippe Grandjean,34 Tom K. Grimsrud,5 Per Gustavsson,35 Andy Haines,27 Patricia Hartge,2 Johnni Hansen,36 Michael Hauptmann,37 Dick Heederik,38 Kari Hemminki,39 Denis Hemon,40 Irva Hertz-Picciotto,41 Jane A. Hoppin,42 James Huff,43 Bengt Jarvholm,44 Daehee Kang,45 Margaret R. Karagas,46 Kristina Kjaerheim,5 Helge Kjuus,47 Manolis Kogevinas,48 David Kriebel,49 Petter Kristensen,47 Hans Kromhout,38 Francine Laden,8 Pierre Lebailly,50 Grace LeMasters,51 Jay H. Lubin,2 Charles F. Lynch,52 Elsebeth Lynge,53 Andrea ‘t Mannetje,22 Anthony J. McMichael,54, John R. McLaughlin,55 Loraine Marrett,56 Marco Martuzzi,57 James A. Merchant,52 Enzo Merler,58 Franco Merletti,59 Anthony Miller,60 Franklin E. Mirer,61 Richard Monson,8 Karl-Cristian Nordby,47 Andrew F. Olshan,24 Marie-Elise Parent,62 Frederica P. Perera,63 Melissa J. Perry,64 Angela Cecilia Pesatori,10 Roberta Pirastu,19 Miquel Porta,65 Eero Pukkala,66 Carol Rice,67 David B. Richardson,24 Leonard Ritter,68 Beate Ritz,69 Cecile M. Ronckers,70 Lesley Rushton,71 Jennifer A. Rusiecki,72 Ivan Rusyn,73 Jonathan M. Samet,74 Dale P. Sandler,75 Silvia de Sanjose,76 Eva Schernhammer,8 Adele Seniori Costantini,77 Noah Seixas,25 Carl Shy,24 Jack Siemiatycki,78 Debra T. Silverman,2 Lorenzo Simonato,79 Allan H. Smith,80 Martyn T. Smith,81 John J. Spinelli,82 Margaret R. Spitz,83 Lorann Stallones,84 Leslie T. Stayner,85 Kyle Steenland,86 Mark Stenzel,87 Bernard W. Stewart,88 Patricia A. Stewart,89 Elaine Symanski,90 Benedetto Terracini,91 Paige E. Tolbert,86 Harri Vainio,92 John Vena,93 Roel Vermeulen,38 Cesar G. Victora,94 Elizabeth M. Ward,95 Clarice R. Weinberg,96 Dennis Weisenburger,97 Catharina Wesseling,98 Elisabete Weiderpass,99 and Shelia Hoar Zahm100
Afiliación de los autores:
1Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; 2Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Bethesda, Maryland, USA; 3Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; 4Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany; 5Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; 6Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain; 7School of Public Health, The University of Sydney and Sax Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 8Department of Environmental Health, and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 9Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA; 10Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation Ca’Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; 11NCI, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 12Division of Public Health Sciences, and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 13Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 14KP Cantor Environmental LLC, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA; 15CREAL, IMIM, and CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain; 16Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; 17Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Cagliari-Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy; 18MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom; 19Department of Biology and Biotechnology, “Charles Darwin” Sapienza Rome University, Rome, Italy; 20Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 21Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA; 22Centre for Public Health Research, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand; 23Department of Environmental Health Science, and Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA; 24Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 25Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington, USA; 26European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro, Cornwall, United Kingdom; 27Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; 28Louisiana State University School of Public Health, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; 29Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy; 30Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology (UFT), Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 31School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 32Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Ecole de Santé Publique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 33Population-based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Inserm UMS 011, Villejuif, France; 34Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 35Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 36Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 37Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 38Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 39German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; 40Epidemiology and Biostatistics Sorbonne Paris Cite Center (CRESS), INSERM, UMR 1153, Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancers Research Group (EPICEA), Paris Descartes University, F-75015, Paris, France; 41Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA; 42Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; 43NIEHS, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 44Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden; 45College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea; 46Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA; 47National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway; 48CREAL, IMIM, and CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain; National School of Public Health, Athens Greece; 49Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA; 50Centre Francois Baclesse, Universite de Caen, Caen, France; 51Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; 52Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; 53Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 54National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; 55Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 56Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 57World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn, Germany; 58Regional Mesothelioma Register, National Health Service, Local Health Authority, Padova, Italy; 59Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 60Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 61City University of New York (CUNY) School of Public Health, New York, New York, USA; 62INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Universite du Quebec, Laval, Quebec, Canada; 63Department of Environmental Health Sciences, and Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA; 64Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, DC, USA; 65IMIM, CIBERESP, and School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 66Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland, and School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 67Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; 68School of Environmental Sciences, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; 69Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA; 70Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children’s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 71MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 72Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; 73Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; 74Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA; 75Epidemiology Branch, NIEHS, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 76Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Unit of Infections and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), CIBERESP Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain; 77Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Florence, Italy; 78Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Ecole de Santé Publique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 79Laboratory of Public Health and Population Studies, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 80The School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA; 81Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA; 82Cancer Control Research, BC Cancer Agency and School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 83Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA; 84Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; 85Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 86Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 87Exposure Assessment Applications LLC, Arlington, Virginia, USA; 88Cancer Control Program, South East Sydney Public Health Unit, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia; 89Stewart Exposure Assessments LLC, Arlington, Virginia, USA; 90Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA; 91University of Torino and Centro di Riferimento per l’Epidemiologia e la Prevenzione Oncologica, CPO Piemonte, Torino, Italy; 92Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; 93Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA; 94Universdade Federal de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 95American Cancer Society Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 96Biostatistics and Computational Biology Branch, NIEHS, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 97Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, USA; 98Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 99Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; Genetic Epidemiology Group, Folkhalsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 100Shelia Zahm Consulting, Hermon, Maine, USA;

 

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